Simply put, a fallacy is an instance in which the premises offered by an argument do not support its conclusion. There are various ways which people use fallacies in attempt to support their argument:
- Emotional / Moral
- A plea to the emotional and/or moral side of people which is not really pertinent to the argument.
- Example: "The senator's bill should not be passed because he was unfaithful to his wife and is therefore wrong."
- An instance in which the premises do not logically lead to the conclusion stated.
- Example: "Raising tuition prices will cause the Apocalypse."
Here is a clip of a debate in which an Appeal to Popularity is used - the fallacy is evident at the 3:25 mark:
The defense Megyn Kelly uses in response to allegations that Fox News is biased is the fact that Fox News is popular among its viewers and that there are over 1 million of them. The reason this is a fallacy is that how popular Fox News is among its viewers has nothing to do with how biased or unbiased the media source is. Furthermore, her statement that people like Fox News because it is fair and balanced is a jump in logic - just because people like the program does not mean it is unbiased.